Thursday, May 10, 2012

"Ten Blocks on the Camino Real" - opens tonight at Charlestown Working Theater

The thirty days are now up - time to visit Camino Real! For our last entry, it's only appropriate that the final words go to Elia Kazan (director of the first Broadway production of the 16 block "Camino Real"), Beau Jest director Davis Robinson, and to Tennessee Williams, creator of this mysterious, magical place.
Elia Kazan:
"The play didn't take place in Mexico or in any other land that can be found in an atlas.  It happens in the topography inside the author's head.  What I got was a lugubrious realistic setting that was, in a word, heavy handed.  And too real.  It made the fantasies that took place inside it seem silly."
Kazan on the play's characters:
"They are all doomed, but Kilroy has a quality the others have lost: He can still struggle to get up when he's knocked down."
Kazan again:
"Camino Real is as private as a nightmare. No playwright except Eugener O'Neill in his last plays was as personal as Tennessee Williams. This play perhaps more than the others --- are about the greatest fears of the author, of distrust and betrayal: distrust of his own fate and of other humans and the betrayal he was certain would come, both from other men, even those close to him, and, because of its anarchy and cataclysmic speed, from time itself."

Kazan's question to Williams:
"Once when I asked him what his play was about, he answered, 'It's the story of everyone's life after he has gone through the razzle-dazzle of his youth. Time is short, baby, it betrays us as we betray eachother. Work, that's all there is! There is terror and mystery on oneside, honor and tenderness on the other."
Davis Robinson:
One of the most fascinating things to read while researching "Ten Blocks" was the public and private correspondence between Tennessee Williams and the show's many supporters and detractors after its reception on Broadway as the 16 block "Camino Real." Although many characters were added and plot points expanded for the Broadway version, both versions share a sensibility that was well articulated by Tennessee in a letter to the New York Times critic Brooks Atkinson after reviews came out:
"…In writing fantasy it is terribly hard to know when you have violated the boundaries of audience acceptance. Some will allow you absolute license, others almost none, and I don't suppose there is any way of assuring a uniform disarmament, no matter how carefully or subtley you prepare them. A lot of the grotesque comedy in this work, and I think that is its dominant element, even though all of it had a serious import back of it, is traceable to the spirit of the American comic strip and the animated cartoons, where the most outrageous absurdities give the greatest delight. I'm sure you've seen the movie cartoons where the characters are blown sky high one moment and are skipping gaily about the next, where various members of their bodies are destroyed and restored in the flicker of the projector, and nobody seems to mind the implausibility of it. I thought that this art-form had softened up my American audiences for the manifest illogicalities of Camino! (More's the pity!) The Messrs. Chapman and Kerr - (I stopped reading the notices after those came out – except for Hawkins which a true friend read over the phone at 3AM when a combination of nembutal and seconal still hadn't worked) - were obviously not willing to be budged one centimeter from the strictest of literal approaches, or at least moralistic attitudes, toward something that literally got down on its knees and begged for imaginative participation."
-- Tennessee Williams
Quotes from the autobiography "Elia Kazan: A Life", published 1997 by Da Capo Press, excerpted by Larry Coen. Photo: Stan Rowin

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

This blog began 29 days ago, providing background information (or dramaturgy, to use the fancy academic term) on Beau Jest Moving Theatre's production of Tennessee Williams' rarely performed "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real," which opens tomorrow at Charlestown Working Theater. Today's next-to-last entry looks at two very important characters in the play.

The Characters in "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"
The Street Sweepers
As in many Latin American countries, Mexico commemorates the Day of the Dead (Día de los Muertos) or All Souls’ Day on November 2nd. The legacy of past civilizations is graphically manifested on this occasion through people’s beliefs that death is a transition from one life to another where communication exists between the living and the dead. Differing from the Roman Catholic ritual to commemorate All Souls’ Day, the custom established by pre-colonial Mexican civilizations became a ceremony where indigenous beliefs blended with Catholic beliefs. Therefore, the Day of the Dead in Mexico is not a mournful commemoration but a happy and colorful celebration where death takes a lively, friendly expression. Indigenous people believed that souls did not die, that they continued living in Mictlan, a special place to rest. In this place, the spirits rest until the day they could return to their homes to visit their relatives.
Before the Spaniards arrived, they celebrated the return of the souls between the months of July and August. Once arrived, the Spaniards changed the festivities to November 2nd to coincide with All Souls’ Day of the Catholic Church.
Presently, two celebrations honoring the memory of loved ones who have died take place: On November 1st, the souls of the children are honored with special designs in the altars, using the color white on flowers and candles. On November 2nd, the souls of the adults are remembered with a variety of rituals, according to the different states of the Mexican republic. This is an ancestral tradition that blended with Catholicism to create a special time and space to remember and honor the loved ones by offering them an ofrenda, the fragrance of the flowers, the light of the candles, the aroma of special foods and the solemnity of prayers.
It is also a time to joke and make fun of death through "calaveras", poetry allusive to a particular person, generally politicians; sugar, chocolate and amaranth skulls which are given to one another with their friend’s name so "they can eat their own death" and special crafts allusive to different aspects of the living, with skeletons representing daily activities.
It is this last aspect that Tennessee Williams used for his two Street Sweepers, everyday workers who here represent Death, terrifying to the European and North American vistors to the Camino Real.

Tuesday, May 8, 2012

The Characters in "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"

The Gypsy: It’s difficult to think of a Gypsy and not see the image of a crystal ball or tarot cards. Since their push into Persia, Gypsies/Roma have been linked with fortunetelling. From the Eastern, holistic and magical context to their Indian origins, Gypsies (or Romas), are prized for their remarkable psychic abilities and the gift to attract good fortune or destroy a life with a curse. All are born with such gifts, but what makes their powers so innate is their relationship with nature. Their bond with the spirits of the outdoors allows their gifts to evolve naturally.

Gypsies believe that within their own there are certain ones who posses great power through the ability to perform magic with their special range of knowledge. Within the Roma/Gypsy society they are known as chovihanis. Among the chovihani there are four favorites for fortune telling (or dukkerin`): palm reading, tea leaves, the crystal, and cards. These methods are of a “practical” nature and do not use anything complex or expensive.
Surprisingly, the Roma/Gypsy usually does not consult a chovihani or anyone else for past, present or future knowledge. Nor are the chovihanis held in high esteem because of their gifts; rather it is the money brought in by their gifts that gives them a place of honor within the society.
Palm Reading: Palmistry is the most common divination method. The hands can be considered a simple chart of our lives. The left hand reveals the life we are born with while the right hand is what we make of that life.
Tea Leaves: The questioner begins by drinking Chinese tea from a round white cup. He or she will drink the tea until only a spoonful is left in the cup. With their left hand, the tea is swirled around counter clockwise three times and then turned upside down to drain. The cup is then turned right-side up and passed to the chovihani to read the leaves.
Crystal Ball: The image of a Gypsy huddled over a crystal ball is a familiar one. In reality, the crystal ball is rarely used as it takes much preparation before and during the reading. However, utilizing the crystal ball is an art that can be mastered with dedication and patience. For gazing, a crystal ball, a black cloth (to put the ball upon) a comfortable chair and a table are needed. The trick here is to “gaze” into the ball and not stare. Meditate for as long as need be to quiet your mind, gaze into the ball and interpret the symbolic images that appear.
Tarot Cards: The earliest known tarot deck came from India with the Gypsies introducing them to the world. Many chovihanis use an ordinary deck of playing cards, which were derived from the tarot. A deck of tarot cards consists of seventy-eight richly decorated cards marked with a number of antiquated symbols. The cards are divided into two groups: The Major Arcana, consisting of twenty-two ceremonial pictures of symbolic persons; and the Minor Arcana, fifty-eight cards that represent the four suits. Tarot cards are used to gain insight into a person’s actions and how they relate to the past, present and future circumstances.
Among the Gypsies, the magical arts are almost always practiced by women.
Adapted from: The Mysterious & Magical Gypsy/Roma by Allie Theiss (paper for Middle Eastern Class - 2009

Monday, May 7, 2012

The Characters in "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"
Marguerite Gautier
"The Lady of the Camellias" (La Dame aux camélias) is an 1848 novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils, son of the man who wrote"The Three Musketeers."  The stage adaptation premiered in 1852 and was an instant success, inspiring Giuseppe Verdi to immediately put the story to music, resulting in the 1853 opera La Traviata.
In the English-speaking world, "The Lady of the Camellias" became known as "Camille" and 16 productions have been performed on Broadway alone. The title character is Marguerite Gautier, who is based on Marie Duplessis, the real-life lover of author Dumas, fils.
"The Lady of the Camellias" is a love story between Marguerite Gautier, a "demi-mondaine", (a woman "kept" by various lovers, frequently more than one at a time) suffering from tuberculosis, and a young provincial bourgeois, Armand Duval. Armand falls in love with Marguerite and ultimately becomes her lover, convincing her to turn her back on her life as a "courtesane" and live with him in the countryside. This idyllic existence is broken by Armand's father, who, concerned by the scandal created by the illicit relationship and fearful that it will destroy his daughter's (Armand's sister's) chances of marriage, convinces Marguerite to leave Armand, who believes, up until Marguerite's death, that she has left him for another man. Marguerite's death is described as an unending agony, during which Marguerite, abandoned by everyone, can only regret what might have been.
Dumas is careful to paint a favourable portrait of Marguerite, who despite her past is rendered virtuous by her love for Armand. The suffering of the two lovers, whose love is shattered by the need to conform to the morals of the times, is rendered touchingly.
The role of the tragic "Marguerite Gautier" became one of the most coveted amongst actresses and included performances by Lillian Gish, Eleonora Duse, Tallulah Bankhead, Eva Le Gallienne, Isabelle Adjani, and especially Sarah Bernhardt, who starred in Paris, London, and several Broadway revivals, plus a 1911 film. It has been filmed in numerous countries and in a wide variety of languages, and has been played on screen by Bernhardt, María Félix, Theda Bara, Alla Nazimova, Greta Garbo, Micheline Presle, Francesca Bertini, Isabelle Huppert, and others.
In the large arena of adaptations, spin-offs and parodies, special mention goes to Charles Ludlam's version, staged first by his own Ridiculous Theatrical Company in 1973, with Ludlam playing the lead in drag, moving his audiences alternately to laughter and tears.
You can read the full texts in the original French and in an English translation at Project Gutenberg. Visit Marguerite Gautier and Armand Duval's Facebook page:
Adapted from:

Saturday, May 5, 2012

The Designers of "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"

We asked our Costume Designer, Fabian Aguilar, to give us a few words about his work on the show.

The biggest excitement for me in costuming this piece for Beau Jest was how all of it's elements reminded me so much of the yearly theater festival my parents would take me to in Mexico as a child. That fed into the inspiration for the costuming, along with old Mexican movies with their pulp magazine compositions, with a splash of 1950's Hollywood, and just a bit of my childhood obsession with Mexican folk artist Jose Guadalupe Posada. 

My job as designer is to help these performers tell a story visually, and in "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real", a play rich with iconic characters and fast changing vignettes, the hardest part is the visual juggling act: you have to design accurately to the character represented, as well as to the practical and physical means of a production. And with the text rich in allegory, metaphor, and symbolism, I tried to revolve the costume design around what garment pieces symbolized each character and still remaining agile enough to let the performer transform fluidly from block to block.

-- Fabian Aguilar

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

The Characters in "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"

Giacomo Girolamo Casanova de Seingalt (aka Jacques Casanova), born April 2, 1725, died June 4, 1798, was an Italian adventurer and author. he was so famous as a womanizer that his name remains synonymous with the art of seduction. He associated with European royalty, popes and cardinals, along with luminaries such as Voltaire, Goethe and Mozart.

At the time of Casanova's birth, Venice thrived as the pleasure capital of Europe. the famed carnibval, gambling houses, and beautiful courtesans were powerful drawing cards for young men all over the continent.

On his ninth birthday, Casanova was sent to a boarding house on the mainland in Padua. This neglect by his parents was a bitter memory: "So they got rid of me," he later wrote.

Conditions at the boarding house were appalling, so he appealed to Abbe Gozzi, the priest who was his primary instructor. It was here in the Gozzi household that Casanova first came into contact with the opposite sex, when Gozzi's younger sister Bettina fondled him when he was eleven. "The girl pleased me at once, though I had no idea why. It was she who little by little kindled in my heart the first sparks of a feeling which later became my ruling passion." Although she subsequently married, Casanova maintained a life-long attachment to Bettina and the Gozzi family.

Casanova's growing curiosity about women led to his first complete sexual experience with two sisters, then fourteen and sixteen. He proclaimed that his life avocation was firmly established by this encounter.

He entered the University of Padua and graduated with a degree in law at age seventeen. He also studied moral philosophy, chemistry, mathematics, music, and was keenly interested in medicine.

At the age of 21, he set out to become a professional gambler but losing all his money, he turned to his old benefactor Alvise Grimani, who found him a job as violinist in the San Samuele theater.

At age 30, Casanova was arrested "for public outrages against the holy religion." Without a trial, he was sentenced to five years in an "unescapable" prison. During exercise walks, he found a piece of black marble and an iron bar which he smuggled back to his cell, spending weeks sharpening the bar into a spike on the marble stone. After his escape, he left behind an ironic note that quoted the 117th Psalm: "I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of the Lord."

Casanova travelled to England, hoping to sell his idea of a state lottery to English officials, working his way up to an audience with George III. He also spent much time in the bedroom. As a means to find females for his pleasure, not speaking English, he put an ad in a newspaper to rent an apartment to the "right" person. He interviewed many young women, choosing one "Mistress Pauline" who suited him well. Soon, he established himself in her apartment and seduced her. These and other liaisons, however, left him weak with venereal disease and he left England broke and ill.

His return to Venice was a cordial one and he was treated as a celebrity. Even the Inquisitors wanted to hear how he had escaped from their prison. But no financial opportunities came about. At age 49, the years of reckless living and the thousands of miles of travel had taken their toll. His easygoing manner was now more guarded.

In 1785, Casanova became the librarian to a Bohemian Count, but the Count often ignored him at meals and failed to introduce him to important visitig guests, and he was thoroughly disliked by most of the other inhabitants of the castle. Casanova's only friends in Bohemia seemed to be his fox terriers. In despair, Casanova considered suicide, but instead decided that he must live on to record his memoirs, which he did until his death at age 73. His last words were "I have lived as a philosopher and I die as a Christian."

For more than two hundred years since his death, Casanova has been best known for his prowess in seduction, but he was recognized during his life as an extraordinary person, a man of far-ranging intellect and curiosity. He was a true adventurer, a lawyer, clergyman, military officer, violinist, con man, pimp, gourmand, dancer, businessman, diplomat, spy, politician, medic, mathematician, social philosopher, cabalist, playwright, and writer.

Born of actors, he had a passion for the theater and for an improvised, theatrical life. But with all his talents, he frequently succumbed to the quest for pleasure and sex, often avoiding sustained work, and got himself into trouble when prudent action would have served him better. His true occupation was living largely on his quick wits, steely nerves, luck, social charm, and the money given to him in gratitude and by trickery.

Freely adapted from Wikipedia.
For more, visit:

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

An Excerpt from "The Sculptural Drama":Tennessee Williams's Plastic Theatre
By Richard E. Kramer

In his production notes to The Glass Menagerie, Tennessee Williams introduces a concept that describes the theatre for which he was writing:
Being a "memory play," The Glass Menagerie can be presented with unusual freedom of convention. Because of its considerable delicate or tenuous material, atmospheric touches and subtleties of direction play a particularly important part. Expressionism and all other unconventional techniques in drama have only one valid aim, and that is a closer approach to truth. When a play employs unconventional techniques, it is not, or certainly shouldn't be, trying to escape its responsibility of dealing with reality, or interpreting experience, but is actually or should be attempting to find a closer approach, a more penetrating and vivid expression of things as they are. The straight realistic play with its genuine Frigidaire and authentic ice-cubes, its characters who speak exactly as its audience speaks, corresponds to the academic landscape and has the same virtue of a photographic likeness. Everyone should know nowadays the unimportance of the photographic in art: that truth, life, or reality is an organic thing which the poetic imagination can represent or suggest, in essence, only through transformation, through changing into other forms than those which were merely present in appearance. These remarks are not meant as a preface only to this particular play. They have to do with a conception of new, plastic theatre which must take the place of the exhausted theatre of realistic conventions if the theatre is to resume vitality as a part of our culture.

Today, plastic theatre is not a particularly rare application. It is what Meyerhold, Eisenstein, and Brecht were after, and directors like Robert Wilson, Richard Foreman, Peter Brook, and Yuri Lyubimov, and groups such as Théâtre du Soleil, Théâtre de Complicité, Ex Machina, Wooster Group, Mabou Mines, and Théâtre de la Jeune Lune do it all the time. Now, these artists are not strictly playwrights, though they function as auteurs, and the companies work as collaborative ensembles in creating their works, but that may be closer to what Williams had in mind than a conventional dramatist-director symbiosis. Certainly the plastic playwright would have to have more control over the production than Williams managed to get in 1944. Even on Broadway today, however, there could not have been M Butterfly, say, or The Invention of Love without plastic theatre. What makes Williams's 1945 expression remarkable is that, first, he is often not regarded in such terms even though he wanted to be and, second, he was writing at a time when straightforward realism was the dominant style on American stages, and the Actors Studio—the creation, in part, of Elia Kazan and the nurturer of Marlon Brando, both part of Williams's early, defining success—was the paradigm for American acting and production.

Friday, April 27, 2012

The Characters of "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"
Don Quixote is the title character of a novel written by Miguel de Cervantes. Alonso Quijano is a retired country gentleman of fifty years of age, living in La Mancha, Spain. While mostly a rational man of sound reason, his excessive reading of books of chivalry has had a profound effect on him, leading to the distortion of his perception and the wavering of his mental faculties. In essence, he believes every word of these books of chivalry to be true though their content is clearly fiction. He decides to go out as a knight-errant in search of adventure. He dons an old suit of armour, renames himself "Don Quixote de la Mancha," and names his skinny horse "Rocinante". Don Quixote approaches his neighbor, Sancho Panza, a simple farmer, and asks him to be his squire, promising him governorship of an island. The uneducated Sancho agrees, and the pair sneak off in the early dawn. It is here that their series of famous adventures begin, starting with Don Quixote's attack on windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants.
Esmeralda is a fictional character in Victor Hugo's 1831 novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame. She is a French Gypsy girl who attracts men with her seductive dances, and is rarely seen without her clever goat. She is around 16 years old. When she spurns the repeated advances of the Archdeacon of Notre Dame he uses her trained goat's apparent ability to count to accuse her of witchcraft. She is jailed and eventually hung as a witch.
Mr. Gutman, The Proprietor of the Sieta Mares Hotel is based on two film characters, both of them played by British character actor Sidney Greenstreet in classic Warner Bros. films of the 1940's. Visually, he closely resembles Signor Ferrari in CASABLANCA, owner of the Blue Parrot cafe, a major underworld figure and Rick's (Humphrey Bogart) friendly business rival, but a fairly minor player in the film's events. Gutman's name and nature are more closely modelled after Kasper Gutman, the major role Greenstreet played to perfection in THE MALTESE FALCON. Gutman will do anything to acquire the titular statue, including selling out his associates.
Adapted from Wikipedia.
and at:

Monday, April 23, 2012

Today we would like to direct your attention to another blog, The Arts Fuse, where director Davis Robinson is interviewed by William Marx.

Friday, April 20, 2012

The Characters in "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"

Baron de Charlus
, in full Baron Palamède de Charlus, is a fictional character, a licentious gay man, in the seven-volume novel Remembrance of Things Past (also translated as In Search of Lost Time) by Marcel Proust. The baron, the nephew of Mme de Villeparisis and a member of the influential Guermantes family, is first introduced in the second novel, Within a Budding Grove (1919).
The model for the fictional character is the real-life Robert de Montesquiou, who was a scion of the famous French Montesquiou-Fézensac Family. He was a distant nephew of Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnan, the model for Dumas' Musketeer. His paternal grandfather was an aide-de-camp to Napoleon and grand officer of the Légion d'honneur; his father was a successful stockbroker who left a substantial fortune. Robert's cousin, Élisabeth, comtesse Greffulhe, was one of Proust's models for the duchesse de Guermantes.
He had social relationships and collaborations with many celebrities of the Fin de siècle period, including writers Alphonse Daudet, Edmond de Goncourt, Gabriele d'Annunzio and Jean Cocteau, and actresses Eleonora Duse and Sarah Bernhardt.
A portrait of him titled Arrangement in Black and Gold: Comte Robert de Montesquiou-Fezensac was painted by his close friend, and model for many of his eccentric mannerisms, James Abbott McNeill Whistler.
He wrote the verses found in the optional choral parts of Gabriel Fauré's Pavane.
One author provides the following verbal portrait of de Montesquiou: "Tall, black-haired, rouged, Kaiser-moustached, he cackled and screamed in weird attitudes, giggling in high soprano, hiding his little black teeth behind an exquisitely gloved hand -- the poseur absolute. He was said to have slept with Sarah Bernhardt and vomited for a week afterwards."
Adapted from Wikipedia

Monday, April 16, 2012

The Characters in "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"
The characters in "Ten Blocks" are nearly all fictional archetypes. Here is one of them: "Kilroy".
"Kilroy was here" is an American popular culture expression, often seen in graffiti. Its origins are debated, but the phrase and the distinctive accompanying doodle—a bald-headed man (possibly with a few hairs) with a prominent nose peeking over a wall with the fingers of each hand clutching the wall—is widely known among U.S. residents who lived during World War II.
Author Charles Panati says that in the US "the mischievous face and the phrase became a national joke... The outrageousness of the graffiti was not so much what it said, but where it turned up." The major Kilroy graffiti fad ended in the 1950s, but today people all over the world still scribble the character and "Kilroy was here" in schools, trains, and other similar public areas.
The phrase may have originated through United States servicemen, who would draw the doodle and the text "Kilroy was here" on the walls and other places they were stationed, encamped, or visited. 
According to one story, it was reported that German intelligence found the phrase on captured American equipment. This began leading Hitler to believe that Kilroy could be the name or codename of a high-level Allied spy. At the time of the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was rumored that Stalin found "Kilroy was here" written in the VIP's bathroom, prompting him to ask his aides who Kilroy was.
The Oxford English Dictionary says simply that Kilroy was "The name of a mythical person". One theory identifies James J. Kilroy (1902–1962), an American shipyard inspector, as the man behind the signature. The New York Times indicated J.J. Kilroy as the origin in 1946, based on the results of a contest conducted by the Amalgamated Transit Union to establish the origin of the phenomenon. The article noted that Kilroy had marked the ships themselves as they were being built—so, at a later date, the phrase would be found chalked in places that no graffiti-artist could have reached (inside sealed hull spaces, for example), which then fed the mythical significance of the phrase—after all, if Kilroy could leave his mark there, who knew where else he could go? 
During World War II J.J. Kilroy  worked at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts, where he claimed to have used the phrase to mark rivets he had checked. The builders, whose rivets Kilroy was counting, were paid depending on the number of rivets they put in. A riveter would make a chalk mark at the end of his or her shift to show where they had left off and the next riveter had started. Unscrupulous riveters discovered that, if they started work before the inspector arrived, they could receive extra pay by erasing the previous worker's chalk mark and chalking a mark farther back on the same seam, giving themselves credit for some of the previous riveter's work. J.J. Kilroy stopped this practice by writing "Kilroy was here" at the site of each chalk mark. At the time, ships were being sent out before they had been painted, so when sealed areas were opened for maintenance, soldiers found an unexplained name scrawled. Thousands of servicemen may have potentially seen his slogan on the outgoing ships and Kilroy's apparent omnipresence and inscrutability sparked a legend. The slogan began to be regarded as proof that a ship had been checked well, and as a kind of protective talisman.  Afterwards, servicemen began placing the slogan on different places and especially in newly captured areas or landings, and the phrase took on connotations of the presence or protection of the US armed forces.
The Lowell Sun reported in November 1945, with the headline "How Kilroy Got There", that a 21-year old soldier from Everett, Sgt. Francis J. Kilroy, Jr., wrote "Kilroy will be here next week" on a barracks bulletin board at a Boca Raton airbase while ill with flu, and the phrase was picked up by other airmen and quickly spread abroad. The Associated Press similarly reported at the same time that according to Sgt. Kilroy, when he was hospitalized early in World War II a friend of his, Sgt. James Maloney, wrote the phrase on a bulletin board. Maloney continued to write the shortened phrase when he was shipped out a month later, and other airmen soon picked up the phrase. Francis Kilroy himself only wrote the phrase a couple of times. 
Adapted from Wikipedia.

Friday, April 13, 2012

Tennessee Williams (1911-1983)

Tennessee Williams was a master playwright of the twentieth century, and his plays A Streetcar Named Desire, The Glass Menagerie and Cat On A Hot Tin Roof are considered among the finest of the American stage. At their best, his twenty-five full-length plays combined lyrical intensity, haunting loneliness, and hypnotic violence. He is widely considered the greatest Southern playwright and one of the greatest playwrights in the history of American drama.

Born Thomas Lanier Williams on March 26, 1911, he suffered through a difficult and troubling childhood. His father was a shoe salesman and an emotionally absent parent. He became increasingly abusive as the Williams children grew older. His mother had lived the adolescence and young womanhood of a spoiled Southern belle. Williams was sickly as a child, and his mother was a loving but smothering woman. In 1918 the family moved from Mississippi to St. Louis, and the change from a small provincial town to a big city was very difficult for Williams' mother. The young Williams was also influenced by his older sister Rose's emotional and mental imbalance during their childhood.

In 1929, Williams enrolled in the University of Missouri. After two years his father withdrew him for flunking ROTC, and he took a job at his father's shoe company. He despised the job but worked at the warehouse by day and wrote late into the night. The strain was too much, and in 1935 Williams had a nervous breakdown. He recovered at his grandparents' home in Memphis, and during these years he continued to write. Amateur productions of his early plays were produced in Memphis and St. Louis.

Rose's mental health continued to deteriorate as well. During a fight between their parents in 1936, her father made a move towards Rose that he claimed was meant to calm her. Rose thought his overtures were sexual and suffered a terrible breakdown. Her mother had her lobotomized shortly afterward.

Williams went back to school and graduated from the University of Iowa in 1938. He then moved to New Orleans, where he began going by the name Tennessee, a nickname he'd been given in college thanks to his southern drawl. After struggling with his sexuality through his youth, he finally entered a new life as a gay man, with a new name, a new home, and a promising new career.

In the early 40s, Williams moved between several cities for different jobs and playwriting classes, also working at MGM as a scriptwriter. In 1944 came the great turning point in his career: The Glass Menagerie. First produced in Chicago to great success, the play transferred to Broadway in 1945 and won the NY Critics Circle Award.

While success freed Williams financially, it also made it difficult for him to write. He went to Mexico to work on a play originally titled The Poker Night. This play eventually became one of his masterpieces, A Streetcar Named Desire. It won Williams a second NY Critics' Circle Award and a Pulitzer Prize in 1947, enabling him to travel and buy a home in Key West as an escape for both relaxation and writing. The year 1951 brought The Rose Tattoo and Williams' first Tony award, as well as the successful film adaptation of A Streetcar Named Desire, starring Vivian Leigh and Marlon Brando.

Around this time, Williams met Frank Merlo. The two fell in love, and the young man became Williams' romantic partner until Merlo's untimely death in 1961. He was a steadying influence on Williams, who suffered from depression and lived in fear that he, like his sister Rose, would go insane.

The following years were some of Williams' most productive. His plays were a great success in the United States and abroad, and he was able to write works that were well received by critics and popular with audiences, including The Rose Tattoo (1950), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955), Night of the Iguana (1961), and many others. Cat on a Hot Tin Roof won Williams his second Pulitzer Prize, and was his last truly great artistic and commercial success.

He gave American theatergoers unforgettable characters, an incredible vision of life in the South, and a series of powerful portraits of the human condition. He was deeply interested in something he called "poetic realism," namely the use of everyday objects which, seen repeatedly and in the right contexts, become imbued with symbolic meaning. His plays also seemed preoccupied with the extremes of human brutality and sexual behavior: madness, rape, incest, nymphomania, as well as violent and fantastic deaths. Williams himself often commented on the violence in his own work, which to him seemed part of the human condition; he was conscious, also, of the violence in his plays being expressed in a particularly American setting. As with the work of Edward Albee, critics who attacked the "excesses" of Williams' work often were making thinly veiled attacks on his sexuality. Homosexuality was not discussed openly at that time, but in Williams' plays the themes of desire and isolation reveal, among other things, the influence of having grown up gay in a homophobic world.

The Sixties brought hard times for Tennessee Williams. He had become dependent on drugs, and the problem only grew worse after the death of Frank Merlo in 1961. Merlo's death from lung cancer sent Williams into a deep depression that lasted ten years. Williams was always hugely insecure about his work and the negative critical reception of his later plays was unrelenting and had a deleterious effect on him. Despite health problems and negative critical and audience reception, Williams continued to write every single day of his life.

Overwork and drug use continued to take their toll on him, however, and on February 23, 1983, Williams choked to death on the lid of one of his pill bottles. The later plays, though not considered Williams' best during his lifetime, are now being reconsidered, revived and produced.

He left behind an impressive body of work, including plays that continue to be performed the world over. At his best, Tennessee Williams is a haunting, lyrical, and powerful voice, and is one of the most important forces in twentieth-century American drama.

Adapted from GradeSaver. *Biography of Tennessee Williams | List of Works, Study Guides & Essays*.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

30 Days to TEN BLOCKS

Beau Jest Moving Theatre's production of Tennessee Williams' "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real" will open at Charlestown Working Theater on May 10, thirty days from today. On this page we'll count down the days to the opening by introducing the characters and their fictional or factual origins, Williams' intentions for the play in his own words, hear from the director and designers, and give you background information and notes on this unique, rare piece of Williams' work.
We'll start with Williams' own unpublished introduction to his original version of the play.

The Playwright's Introduction to "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real" 
In an unpublished foreword to the one-act version [of "Ten Blocks on the Camino Real"], written at Taos, New Mexico, in May 1946, Tennessee records [his] experience [in Mexico] vividly as follows:

I am traveling alone through Mexico, my only companion being some particularly vicious little microscopic organisms which have set up housekeeping in the slums of my interior. I have dysentery, or what is more gaily known as The Mexican Two-Step. I am running a few degrees [of] temperature so that the dream-like effect of the country through the train windows is more than a little subjective. It is between the capitol of Mexico and Guadalajara that I am traveling, a journey that begins in the early morning  and continues till long after dark, so that if you are ill when you start, there is plenty of time to die before you arrive, but the journey is interesting enough to keep you alive while being strenuous enough to kill you. It is now about dusk and the train is drawing into one of those shy and melancholy little villages of central Mexico that ou find huddled beneath the comforting ranges of blue mountains in a way that suggests a Quattrocento Madonna nursing her child. The blue dusk in the village, all of the pale adobe, is like the essential myth of a poem, and the incidental phenomena are as lines and images chosen with the taste of sweet congruity that belongs to a graceful minor poet. Figures of women, pale and voluminously cloaked, more spectral than human, are rushing lightly as dancers along the open windows of the coaches, crying out in their soft voices such words as pan dulce, pasteles, bonitas, whose commonplace meanings a foreigner can't ignore. Also along the tracks are oil-burning flares which throw shadows of the ghostly hawkers against the dim facades of the street. And not far off, in one of the rose-lit cantinas, a woman is singing with a guitar one of those peculiarly haunting popular songs of Mexico such as Noce de Ronda or Palabras de Mujer.
So far there is nothing anomalous, nothing harsh or shocking, for it is all of one pleasantly an uneventfully harmonious piece, the quality being similar to a painting of Picasso's Blue Period.
The first discrepancy occurs when a woman passenger, obviously an American tourist, alights from one of the coaches further ahead. She starts to move down the coaches in my direction. She has on a summer coat of a white material and her hat is heaped with artificial violets. Now her slightly worn bu classically beautiful face catches the flickering glare of the torches. She has purchased some fruit from one of the vendors along the tracks. A man calls anxiously behind her. He is a distinguished looking gentleman in a white linen suit. He warns her that the fruit is probably unwashed. She laughs and says, "I think it would be wonderful to die of eating a piece of unwashed fruit!" Now the train has started creeping forward again. the man is afraid to leave her. He seizes her arm and half drags her onto the nearest platform of the coaches. She breaks into a laugh that turns into a paroxysm of coughing. -- Yes, now I know who it is -- Marguerite Gautier! La Dame aux Camellias!
A second later a low wall has swung in close to the train and as it slides past I catch a glimpse of a childishly drawn inscription, one that I have seen in a thousand different public places in the States but never before in Mexico. KILROY WAS HERE, it announces. the faint blue harmonies of the Mexican Village had received Camille with surprise but no particular shock. She also belonged to the romantic tradition. But Kilroy is another matter. He comes into the sonata like hot licks on a trumpet, he and the world that he lives in, a world of pawn-shops on Rampart Street, jitney dance-halls, dollar-a-night hotel rooms, bars on Skid Row, all the vivid, one-dimensional clowneries and heroisms of the nickle comic and adventure strips, celebrated in the raw colors of childhood's spectrum. this is Kilroy, the most famous citizen of America, about whom nothing is known except that he goes everywhere that it doesn't cost much to go, the poor man's Don Quixote or Paul Bunyan. Here is the stuff of a Picasso ten or fifteen years after the Blue Period. Here is the new congruity of incongruities which is the root of the power in modern art, the dramatic juxtaposition of the crude and the tender, the poetic and the brutish. Yes, it could be done with paint. But with language? In some of Hart Crane, yes! But how about a play?
Possibly. Yes, possibly. But not a play that is conceived just as spoken drama. It would have to be a play whose values are mainly plastic, a play that is less written than painted.
A play that is painted? Why not?
At least I could try. And here it is.
-- From "Documentary Sources for Camino Real" by Brian Parker, published in The Tennessee Williams Annual Review